Un violoniste perché sur le toit, tentant de jouer un air de virtuose tout en maintenant constamment son équilibre (l'image n'est pas tirée des romans de Cholem Aleikhem mais des tableaux de Marc Chagall) : c'est à cela que ressemble le Juif moyen d'Europe de l'Est, vivant bon an mal an dans son petit village, parfois depuis des générations, en se raccrochant à ses traditions. Mais les temps changent…Synopsis complet
Dans l'histoire de la comédie musicale, Un violon sur le toit tient une place unique en son genre : c'est en effet probablement le seul spectacle musical à très grand succès (près de 10 ans sans interruption à Broadway et des adaptations un peu partout dans le monde) qui représente également un témoignage historique et réaliste d'un monde complètement disparu dans les tourmentes du XXe siècle. En ce début des années 1960, la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale était encore toute proche, et le jeune Etat d’Israël se trouvait déjà confronté à bien des problèmes. Le monde entier, doublement sensibilisé aux vicissitudes du peuple juif, fit donc un accueil particulièrement triomphal à ce spectacle à la fois grave et joyeux. Le succès ne se démentit pas tout au long des années 1960 et l’oeuvre rencontra un écho similaire lorsque le film sortit en 1971. Le spectacle fut le chant du cygne de Jerome Robbins à Broadway ; il se consacra ensuite exclusivement au ballet. L’univers de la danse se prêtait sans doute mieux à sa tyrannie que celui du théâtre, même musical.
1 Fiddler on the Roof peut-être considéré comme un Top musical
Fiddler on the Roof was originally titled Tevye. It is based on Tevye and his Daughters (or Tevye the Milkman) and other tales by Sholem Aleichem that he wrote in Yiddish and published in 1894. The musical's title stems from the painting "The Fiddler" by Marc Chagall, one of many surreal paintings he created of Eastern European Jewish life, often including a fiddler. The Fiddler is a metaphor for survival, through tradition and joyfulness, in a life of uncertainty and imbalance.
Génèse du musical
The original Broadway production opened on September 22, 1964, at the Imperial Theatre, transferred in 1967 to the Majestic Theatre and in 1970 to The Broadway Theatre, and ran for a record-setting total of 3,242 performances. The production was directed and choreographed by Jerome Robbins – his last original Broadway staging. The set, designed in the style of Marc Chagall's paintings, was by Boris Aronson. A colorful logo for the production, also inspired by Chagall's work, was designed by Tom Morrow.
The cast included Zero Mostel as Tevye the milkman, Maria Karnilova as his wife Golde (each of whom won a Tony for their performances), Beatrice Arthur and later Florence Stanley as Yente the matchmaker, Austin Pendleton as Motel, Bert Convy as Perchik the student revolutionary, Gino Conforti as the fiddler, and Julia Migenes as Hodel. Joanna Merlin originated the role of Tzeitel, which was later assumed by Bette Midler during the original run. Carol Sawyer was Fruma Sarah, Adrienne Barbeau took a turn as Hodel, and Pia Zadora played the youngest daughter, Bielke. Both Peg Murray and Dolores Wilson made extended appearances as Golde, while other stage actors who have played Tevye include Herschel Bernardi (in the original Broadway run), Theodore Bikel and Leonard Nimoy. Mostel's understudy in the original production, Paul Lipson, went on to appear as Tevye in more performances than any other actor, clocking over 2,000 performances in the role in the original run as well as several revivals. The production earned $1,574 for every dollar invested in it.
The original West End production opened on February 16, 1967, at Her Majesty's Theatre and played for 2,030 performances. It starred Chaim Topol, who would also play Tevye in the 1971 film adaptation and the 1990 Broadway revival, and Miriam Karlin as Golde. Alfie Bass, Lex Goudsmit and Barry Martin eventually took over as Tevye. The show was revived in London in for short seasons in 1983 at The Apollo Victoria Theatre and in 1994 at The London Palladium.
The first Broadway revival opened on December 28, 1976, and ran for 176 performances at the Winter Garden Theatre. Zero Mostel starred as Tevye. Robbins directed and choreographed. A second Broadway revival opened on July 9, 1981, and played for a limited run (53 performances) at Lincoln Center's New York State Theater. It starred Herschel Bernardi as Tevye and Karnilova as Golde. Other cast members included Liz Larsen, Fyvush Finkel, Lawrence Leritz and Paul Lipson. Robbins directed and choreographed. The third Broadway revival opened on November 18, 1990, and ran for 241 performances at the George Gershwin Theatre. Topol starred as Tevye, and Marcia Lewis was Golde. Robbins' production was reproduced by Ruth Mitchell and choreographer Sammy Dallas Bayes. The production won the Tony Award for Best Revival.
A fourth Broadway revival opened on February 26, 2004, and ran for 36 previews and 781 performances at the Minskoff Theatre. Alfred Molina, and later Harvey Fierstein, starred as Tevye, and Randy Graff, and later Andrea Martin and Rosie O'Donnell, was Golde. This production replaced Yente's song "The Rumor" with a song for Yente and two other women called "Topsy-Turvy". It was directed by David Leveaux. The production was nominated for six Tonys but did not win any.
Fiddler was first revived in London in 1983 at the Apollo Victoria Theatre (a four-month season starring Topol) and again in 1994 at the London Palladium for two months and then on tour, again starring Topol, and directed and choreographed by Sammy Dallas Bayes, recreating the Robbins production.
After a two-month tryout at the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield, England, a London revival opened on May 19, 2007, at the Savoy Theatre starring Henry Goodman as Tevye, Beverley Klein as Golde, Alexandra Silber as Hodel, Damian Humbley as Perchik and Victor McGuire as Lazar Wolf. The production was directed by Lindsay Posner. Robbins' choreography was recreated by Sammy Dallas Bayes (who did the same for the 1990 Broadway revival), with additional choreography by Kate Flatt.
Liste des chansons
Prologue: Tradition – Tevye and the Company
Matchmaker, Matchmaker – Tzeitel, Hodel and Chava
If I Were a Rich Man – Tevye
Sabbath Prayer – Tevye, Golde and the Company
To Life – Tevye, Lazar Wolf and the Company
Tevye's Monologue – Tevye
Miracle of Miracles – Motel
Tevye's Dream – Tevye, Golde, Grandma Tzeitel, Fruma-Sarah and the Company
Sunrise, Sunset – Tevye, Golde, Perchik, Hodel and the Company
The Bottle Dance – Instrumental
Entracte – Orchestra
Now I Have Everything – Perchik and Hodel
Tevye's Rebuttal – Tevye
Do You Love Me? – Tevye and Golde
The Rumor/I Just Heard§ – Yente and villagers
Far From the Home I Love – Hodel
Chavaleh (Little Bird) – Tevye
Anatevka – The Company
The Leave Taking – Tevye, Family and Fiddler
Liste des rôles
Tevye, a poor milkman
Golde, his wife
Tzeitel, their oldest daughter, about nineteen. Loves Motel.
Hodel, their daughter, about seventeen. Falls in love with Perchik.
Chava, their daughter, about fifteen. Falls in love with Fyedka.
Shprintze and Bielke, their youngest daughters, about twelve and nine
Motel Kamzoil, the tailor, who loves, and later marries, Tzeitel
Perchik, a student and Bolshevik revolutionary, who falls in love with Hodel
Fyedka, a young Christian man who marries Chava
Lazar Wolf, the butcher that Tzeitel was supposed to marry
Yente, the gossipy village matchmaker who matches Tzeitel and Lazar
Fruma-Sarah, Lazar Wolf's dead wife, who rises from the grave
Grandma Tzeitel, Golde's dead grandmother
Mordcha, the innkeeper
Rabbi, the village rabbi
Constable, the head of the Russian authority in Anatevka
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