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King and I (The) (1951)

Compositeur: Richard Rodgers

Parolier: Oscar Hamerstein II

Librettiste: Oscar Hamerstein II

East versus West makes for a dramatic, richly textured and ultimately uplifting tale of enormous fascination. It is 1862 in Siam when an English widow, Anna Leonowens, and her young son arrive at the Royal Palace in Bangkok, having been summoned by the King to serve as tutor to his many children and wives.

Généralités: Histoire, thèmes et particularités

Résumé

Anna Leonowens part avec son fils Louis au Siam (aujourd'hui la Thaïlande) afin de devenir la gouvernante des enfants du roi. Malheureusement, le Roi refuse de lui donner la maison qu'il lui avait promis et l'oblige à vivre dans le palais. Mécontente, Anna décide de quitter le Siam, mais Lady Thiang, la première femme du Roi, la fait changer d'avis. Elle décide alors d'aider le Roi qui prend l'habitude de la faire réveiller à des heures tardives pour lui poser des questions. Un ambassadeur d'Angleterre, Sir Edward doit venir au Siam pour se rendre compte si le Roi est réellement barbare. Avec l'aide d'Anna, le Roi réussira à prouver que son pays est civilisé et offre une fête très réussie. Tout semble aller bien.
Tuptim, la dernière femme du Roi, arrivée de Birmanie comme cadeau, s'enfuit après la fête pour retrouver son amoureux et partir avec lui. Les soldats du Roi réussissent à la retrouver et le Roi veut la fouetter pour la punir. Son amoureux s'est noyé dans la poursuite. Anna s'oppose à la punition que le Roi veut donner à Tuptim et dit au Roi qu'en agissant ainsi, il se conduira comme un barbare. Le Roi ne fouettera finalement Tuptim. Anna décide de quitter quand même le Siam. Le jour de son départ, on vient la prévenir que le Roi est très malade. Anna va le voir et apprend qu'il va mourir. Elle prend la décision de rester pour s'occuper des enfants du Roi et du Prince héritier.

Synopsis complet

 

Historique du musical

Inspiration

The musical is based on the 1944 novel Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon, which derives from the memoirs of Anna Leonowens, governess to the children of King Mongkut of Siam in the early 1860s.

Génèse du musical

Rodgers & Hammerstein's first musical play based on a true story was also the first project brought to them by a star who wanted to play the leading role. The star was Gertrude Lawrence, and her idea for a musical came from the highly popular novel, Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon which, in turn, was based on the memoirs of Anna Leonowens, a 19th century Englishwoman who became governess to the children of the King of Siam.

Coincidentally, a few years before Miss Lawrence approached Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, they had already had the idea pitched to them by their wives. Both Dorothy Rodgers and Dorothy Hammerstein had read the Landon book, but it wasn't until Rodgers and Hammerstein viewed a screening of the 1946 film version of the Landon novel that they came around. The film, starring Rex Harrison as the King and Irene Dunne as Anna, provided Rodgers and Hammerstein with the clue they were looking for: yes, the history was fascinating, and yes the exotic themes and settings were ideal for musical pageantry and spectacle; but a good musical also needs story and conflict and here—in the multiple themes of East versus West, "civilization" versus "barbarism," despotism versus democracy and man versus woman—Rodgers and Hammerstein found plenty to write about.

Casting Gertrude Lawrence as Anna was the easy part. As for the King, Noel Coward, Rex Harrison and Alfred Drake, among others, were offered the role and all, for various reasons, turned it down. It was at an open audition that a young dancer whom Mary Martin had recommended walked out onto the stage of the James Theatre, sat cross-legged on the floor and, in Richard Rodgers' words, "plunked one whacking chord on his guitar and began to howl in a strange language that no one could understand...We had our king." He was, of course, Yul Brynner.

THE KING AND I was readied for Broadway with a budget of $360,000—making it the most expensive Rodgers & Hammerstein musical to date, and one of the most lavish in Broadway history. John van Druten was the director; Jerome Robbins served as choreographer, giving his unique touch to such memorable moments as "Shall We Dance?" and the Siamese treatment of Uncle Tom's Cabin, "The Small House of Uncle Thomas." Jo Mielziner designed the sets, and Irene Sharaff the costumes. With a supporting cast that included Doretta Morrow as Tuptim, Dorothy Sarnoff as Lady Thiang, and Larry Douglas as Lun Tha, THE KING AND I began its trek to Broadway in the late winter of 1951.

The musical was greeted enthusiastically in New Haven where changes were made nevertheless. Searching for an Act I song for Anna to brighten her character, Rodgers and Hammerstein were stumped until Mary Martin, visiting from New York, reminded them of an upbeat soft-shoe discarded from SOUTH PACIFIC. A few changes in the music and a brand new lyric, and "Suddenly Lucky" was metamorphosed into "Getting To Know You."

THE KING AND I opened on Broadway on March 29, 1951, where it proceeded to run for three years, racking up 1,246 performances. It received five Tony Awards, including Best Musical, and honors for both of its stars. Very quickly the allure of THE KING AND I began to spread worldwide. Valerie Hobson and Herbert Lom starred in the original London production, and the musical scored great successes in Australia, Japan, and throughout Europe—from LE ROI ET MOI in Brussels to DER KONIG UND ICH in Berlin.

In 1956 Twentieth Century Fox—which had presented the 1946 version starring Harrison and Dunne—released the motion picture version of THE KING AND I under the careful eye of studio chief Darryl F. Zanuck. "More than your eyes have ever seen," promised the posters—"More than your heart has ever known!" THE KING AND I starred Deborah Kerr as Anna (with her musical voice provided by Marni Nixon) and Yul Brynner recreating his role as The King. An immediate success, THE KING AND I became the second-highest grossing film of the year and was also critically acclaimed; nominated for nine Academy Awards, it received five, including the Best Actor Award to Brynner.

Yul Brynner's relationship to THE KING AND I is unique in the annals of theatre. Over the course of 34 years he played The King more than 4,600 times, first on stage, then on the big screen and then on television (co-starring with Samantha Eggar in the short-lived series, ANNA AND THE KING in the early '70s.) He brought THE KING AND I back to Broadway for two separate, triumphant engagements; the latter, the culmination of his farewell tour as The King, was presented in 1985, the final year of his life. At the conclusion of that run Mr. Brynner received a special Tony Award for his achievements.

Ultimately, the musical that was conceived by one star, and made a star out of another, has transcended its star vehicle status to live on as a classic in its own right with two starring roles. In addition to the legendary Gertrude Lawrence and Yul Brynner, a host of great names have played these star parts over the years. The honor roll includes, as Anna: Susan Hampshire, Angela Lansbury, Barbara Cook, Jan Clayton, Jeannette MacDonald, Betsy Palmer, Eileen Brennan, Betty White, Virginia McKenna and Florence Henderson. The King, meanwhile, has been played by, among others, Darren McGavin, Alfred Drake, Cameron Mitchell, Farley Granger, Ricardo Montalban, Pernell Roberts, Theodore Bikel, Stacey Keach, and Rudolf Nureyev.

In 1992 Philips Classics released a studio cast recording of THE KING AND I. Under the direction of John Mauceri and featuring the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the all-star recording was led by Julie Andrews (Anna) and Ben Kingsley (The King), with Lea Salonga (Tuptim), Peabo Bryson (Lun Tha), Marilyn Horne (Lady Thiang) and cameo appearances by Martin Sheen and Roger Moore.

Earlier that season, a new production of THE KING AND I starring Hayley Mills began touring Australia. The director was Christopher Renshaw, the designers were Brian Thomson for sets and Roger Kirk for costumes, and the producer was John Frost of the Gordon/Frost Organisation. Distinctive and unusual, this production caught the eye of composer Rodgers' daughter Mary, who declared it the best KING AND I she had ever seen. Within a short time the wheels were set in motion to bring this production 10,000 miles up to Broadway.

It arrived four years later, opening at the Neil Simon Theatre on April 11, 1996, starring Tony Award winner Donna Murphy as Anna and film star Lou Diamond Phillips as The King. Renshaw, Thomson and Kirk repeated their assignments, and Frost's primary co-producers were Dodger Productions. Hailed by the critics and public alike, THE KING AND I swept the triple crown of Broadway honors that spring, winning the Tony Award, Drama Desk Award and Outer Critics' Circle Awards for Best Musical Revival; Murphy received her second Tony, and both set and costume designers won Tony Awards as well. During its second year on Broadway the leads were replaced by Faith Prince and Kevin Gray. Prince herself had been replaced by Marie Osmond (in her Broadway debut) by the time THE KING AND I closed on Broadway in February,1998; its tally of 807 performances made it the longest-running R&H revival in Broadway history.

A U.S. National Tour, starring Hayley Mills for its first year, opened in Minneapolis in April of 1997; the following year Ms. Mills was replaced, first by Marie Osmond and finally Maureen McGovern. A London version of this production, starring Elaine Paige, opened at the legendary Palladium in May of 2000, where it played for nearly two years before embarking on a U.K. National Tour into 2002.

Today, THE KING AND I still reigns, its majesty still shines. With its legacy assured, we leave the final word to Oscar Hammerstein II. In 1956 he wrote to his partner, Richard Rodgers: I am convinced that this is our best work. I have a kind of humble feeling of not knowing how we did it. It has more wisdom as well as heart than any other musical play by anybody. It will remain 'modern' long after any of our other plays.

 

Détails

Liste des chansons

Act I
Overture – Orchestra
I Whistle a Happy Tune – Anna and Louis
My Lord and Master – Tuptim
Hello, Young Lovers – Anna
March of the Royal Siamese Children – Orchestra
A Puzzlement – King
The Royal Bangkok Academy – Anna, Wives and Children
Getting to Know You – Anna, Wives and Children
We Kiss in a Shadow – Tuptim and Lun Tha
A Puzzlement (reprise) – Louis and Prince Chulalongkorn
Shall I Tell You What I Think of You? – Anna
Something Wonderful – Lady Thiang
Buddhist Prayer/Act I finale – King and Company

Act II
Entr'acte – Orchestra
Western People Funny – Lady Thiang and Wives
I Have Dreamed – Tuptim and Lun Tha
Hello, Young Lovers (reprise) – Anna
The Small House of Uncle Thomas (Ballet) – Tuptim and Wives
Song of the King – King and Anna
Shall We Dance? – Anna and the King
I Whistle a Happy Tune (reprise) – Anna

Liste des rôles

•Anna Leonowens - A young widow, in whose heart the pain of bereavement is still very strong. She is compassionate but business-like, and - almost - completely undaunted by the regal magnificence of her employer. She is presented in word, deed and song as an entirely sympathetic person.
•Louis Leonowens - Her young teenage son, keen to acclimatise to the strange lifestyle at an Eastern Court and fiercely fond of his mother.
•The Kralahome - The Prime Minister. A hard and bigoted official who obviously cannot understand why his master is flirting with Western ideas.
•The King - He deserves our admiration for his efforts in trying to come to terms with Western ideas and ways of life, but the conflict between Eastern and Western values, combined with his inbred sense of being a Supreme Ruler, ultimately destroys him
•Lady Thiang - Wise, composed and understanding, she can see clearly both sides of the King's nature and thus of her country's standing in the world.
•Tuptim & Lun Tha - Star-crossed lovers who are pawns in the game of the giant rulers of the Far East.
•Prince Chulalongkorn - The heir to the throne, whose mixture of filial piety and awareness of the need to change are partly a result of Anna's teaching and partly inherited from both his parents.
•Sir Edward Ramsay - Anna's old flame and an important player in the diplomatic game for the friendship of Siam.

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Génèse

  Création 

  Répétitions et try-outs 

  Production originale 

 

Versions du musical

Versions majeures de King and I (The)

Version 1

King and I (The) (????-??-****-Wien) (Revival)
Durée :
Nombre :
Première Preview : Inconnu
Première : Inconnu
Dernière : Inconnu
Mise en scène : ???? ????
Chorégraphie : ???? ????
Avec :
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 2

King and I (The) (1951-03-St. James Theatre-Broadway) (Original)
Durée : 2 ans 11 mois 3 semaines
Nombre : 1246 représentations
Première Preview : Inconnu
Première : jeudi 29 mars 1951
Dernière : samedi 20 mars 1954
Mise en scène :
Chorégraphie :
Avec :
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 3

King and I (The) (1953-10-Drury Lane Theatre-London) (Revival)
Durée :
Nombre : 926 représentations
Première Preview : Inconnu
Première : jeudi 08 octobre 1953
Dernière : Inconnu
Mise en scène :
Chorégraphie : Jerome Robbins
Avec :
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 4

King and I (The) (1973-10-Adelphi Theatre-London) (Revival)
Durée : 7 mois 2 semaines
Nombre :
Première Preview : Inconnu
Première : mercredi 10 octobre 1973
Dernière : samedi 25 mai 1974
Mise en scène : Roger Redfarn
Chorégraphie : Sheila O'Neill
Avec : Anna Leonowens ... Sally Ann Howes
King of Siam ... Peter Wyngarde
Lady Thiang ... Moyna Cope
Tuptim ... Pauline Antony
Lun Tha ... Valentine Palmer
The Kralahome ... David Davenport
Louis Leonowens ... Stephen Grover
Prince Chulalongkorn ... David Morris (ii)
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 5

King and I (The) (1977-04-Uris Theatre-Broadway) (Revival)
Durée : 1 an 8 mois
Nombre : 24 previews - 719 représentations
Première Preview : mardi 12 avril 1977
Première : lundi 02 mai 1977
Dernière : samedi 30 décembre 1978
Mise en scène : Yuriko
Chorégraphie : Jerome Robbins
Avec :
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 6

King and I (The) (1979-06-London Palladium Theatre-London) (Revival)
Durée :
Nombre : 538 représentations
Première Preview : Inconnu
Première : mardi 12 juin 1979
Dernière : Inconnu
Mise en scène : Yuriko
Chorégraphie : Jerome Robbins
Avec : Virginia McKenna (Anna), Yul Brynner (King), Hye-Young Choi (Lady Thiang), June Angela (Tuptim), Marty Rhone (Lun Tha)
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 7

King and I (The) (1984-12-Broadway Theatre-Broadway) (Revival)
Durée : 5 mois 3 semaines
Nombre : 16 previews - 191 représentations
Première Preview : mercredi 26 décembre 1984
Première : lundi 07 janvier 1985
Dernière : dimanche 30 juin 1985
Mise en scène : Mitch Leigh
Chorégraphie : Jerome Robbins
Avec :
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 8

King and I (The) (1991-02-Sadler's Wells Theatre-London) (Revival)
Durée : 3 semaines
Nombre :
Première Preview : mardi 12 février 1991
Première : mardi 12 février 1991
Dernière : mercredi 06 mars 1991
Mise en scène : James Hammerstein
Chorégraphie : Yuriko
Avec : Susan Hampshire (Anna), Koshiro Matsumoto IX (King), Sandra Browne (Lady Thiang), Grace Kinirons (Tuptim), William Michaels (Lun Tha)
Commentaires :
This was a limited run, prior to a national tour. Koshiro Matsumoto IX was Japan’s leading actor, and a much praised legend in his homeland. By the time the tour made a repeat visit to Sadler’s Wells, the role of the King had been taken over by David Yip, who received excellent notices.
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 9

King and I (The) (1991-07-Sadler's Wells Theatre-London) (Return Engagement)
Durée : 1 semaine
Nombre :
Première Preview : Inconnu
Première : samedi 06 juillet 1991
Dernière : samedi 13 juillet 1991
Mise en scène : James Hammerstein
Chorégraphie : Yuriko
Avec : Susan Hampshire {Anna), avid Yip (King), Sandra Browne (Lady Thiang), Jane Arden (Tuptim), William Michaels (Lun Tha)
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 10

King and I (The) (1996-03-Neil Simon Theatre-Broadway) (Revival)
Durée : 1 an 7 mois 2 semaines
Nombre : 27 previews - 781 représentations
Première Preview : mardi 19 mars 1996
Première : jeudi 11 juillet 1996
Dernière : dimanche 22 février 1998
Mise en scène : Christopher Renshaw
Chorégraphie : Jerome Robbins
Avec :
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 11

King and I (The) (1998-12-Battersea Arts Centre-London) (Revival)
Durée : 1 mois 1 semaine
Nombre :
Première Preview : jeudi 03 décembre 1998
Première : jeudi 03 décembre 1998
Dernière : samedi 09 janvier 1999
Mise en scène : Phil Willmott
Chorégraphie : Jack Gunn
Avec : Lindsey Danvers (Anna), Alan Mosley (King), Jacqui-Lee Pryce (Lady Thiang), Lara Parmiani (Tuptim), Learie Foster (Lun Tha), Phil Willmott (Sir Edward)
Commentaires :
Following the previous year’s success in fitting “Sound of Music” into the Battersea Arts Centre’s main house - which is more a gymnasium than an auditorium - this was again judged to be a great success.
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 12

King and I (The) (2000-05-London Palladium Theatre-London) (Revival)
Durée : 1 an 8 mois 1 semaine
Nombre :
Première Preview : mardi 18 avril 2000
Première : mercredi 03 mai 2000
Dernière : samedi 05 janvier 2002
Mise en scène : Christopher Renshaw
Chorégraphie : Jerome Robbins
Avec : Elaine Paige (Anna), Jason Scott Lee (King), Taewon Yi Kim (Lady Thiang), Aura Deva (Tuptim), Sean Ghazi (Lun Tha), Robin Kermode (Sir Edward), Richard Avery, Miguel Diaz, Ho Yi
Commentaires :
This production originated in Australia in 1995, then moved to Broadway with Donna Murphy and Lou Diamond Phillips and Taewon Yi Kim. After 780 performances in New York it transferred to London, and opened “to the largest box office advance in theatrical hyperbole”. It was described as lavish and sumptuous, though the sheer weight of the spectacle, parades and displays tended to slow down the show, giving it a running time in excess of three hours. After 3 months Jason Scott Lee left because of family problems and was replaced by his understudy, Paul Nagauchi. In April 2001 the principal roles were taken by Josie Lawrence and Yeo. The show ran for a year and 8 months, finishing at the beginning of January, 2002.
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 13

King and I (The) (2009-06-Royal Albert Hall-London) (Revival)
Durée : 2 semaines
Nombre :
Première Preview : vendredi 12 juin 2009
Première : samedi 13 juin 2009
Dernière : dimanche 28 juin 2009
Mise en scène : Jeremy Sams
Chorégraphie : Jerome Robbins
Avec : Maria Friedman (Anna), Daniel Dae Kim (King), Jee Hyun Lim (Lady Thiang), Yanle Zhong (Tuptim), Ethan Le Phong (Lun Tha), Michael Simkins (Sir Edward), David Yip (Kralahome), Stephen Scott, Miwa Saeki, Azumi Ono, Victoria Sahakian Rogers, Yo Santhaveesuk Ho Yi
Commentaires :
This was a huge spectacular production with a cast of 45 adults and 77 children, and the 40-strong Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, not to mention the impressive (indoor!) fireworks display. There was special praise for Maria Friedman and for Daniel Dae Kim (better known from the cult TV series “Lost”).
En savoir plus sur cette version

Version 14

King and I (The) (2015-04-Vivian Beaumont Theatre-Broadway) (Revival)
Durée : 1 an 2 mois 1 semaine Se joue actuellement
Nombre :
Première Preview : jeudi 12 mars 2015
Première : jeudi 16 avril 2015
Dernière : Open end, ouvert actuellement jusqu'au dim 26 juin 2016
Mise en scène : Bartlett Sher
Chorégraphie :
Avec : Kelli O'Hara (Anna Leonowens), Ken Watanabe (King of Siam), Ruthie Ann Miles (Lady Thiang), Ashley Park (Tuptim), Conrad Ricamora (Lun Tha), Edward Baker-Duly (Sir Edward Ramsey), Jon Viktor Corpuz (Prince Chulalongkorn), Murphy Guyer (Captain Orton), Jake Lucas (Louis), Paul Nakauchi (Kralahome), et Marc Oka (Phra Alack)
En savoir plus sur cette version

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